A Short History of the Middle Ages, Fifth Edition

Author: Barbara H. Rosenwein
Time period: c.300-c.1500


About the book

In this bestselling book, Barbara H. Rosenwein integrates the history of three medieval civilizations (European, Byzantine, and Islamic) in a dynamic narrative that is complemented by exquisite illustrations and maps. In the new edition, Rosenwein makes significant additions to the Islamic and Mediterranean material as well as to the coverage of Eurasian connections. The maps now show topographical differences as well as changes over time, eighteen new plates highlight the art and architecture of the Islamic and Byzantine worlds, and genealogies and the plans for a mosque are now included. New essays have also been added in order to introduce readers to the analysis of material culture.

About the Author

Barbara H. Rosenwein is Professor in the Department of History at Loyola University Chicago. She is the author of several books, including Emotional Communities in the Early Middle Ages (2006) and Negotiating Space: Power, Restraint, and Privileges of Immunity in Early Medieval Europe (1999).

Study Questions

  • Chapter 1
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. How and why did the “provincialization” of the Empire take place?
      Reveal Answer

      The third century was a critical period in Roman history. From c.250, the Roman government responded to the military emergencies at its borders with wide-ranging reforms that brought new prominence to the provinces of the Roman Empire. This process is called "provincialization." Reforms included:

      • Expansion of the army and an overall militarization of the government. New recruits were also enlisted from Germanic and other barbarian groups of warriors who were settled within the Empire.

      • Commanders were no longer chosen from the senatorial aristocracy, but rather from the ranks of the army. Some of them later became emperors. The greater part of the army and most of the new imperial capitals were in the provinces.

      • The wealth and labor of the Empire moved inexorably toward the provinces in order to feed and supply the army.

    • 2. Why did Emperor Diocletian divide the Roman Empire into four parts, and how did his decision contribute to the end of the “crisis of the third century”?
      Reveal Answer

      The Roman Empire was too large to be ruled by one man in one place. This became clear during the “crisis of the third century,” when two different groups from two different directions (barbarians from the north and Persians from the east) bore down on the frontiers of the Empire. Political instability and an epidemic contributed greatly to the crisis. Diocletian, a provincial from Dalmatia (today Croatia), brought the crisis under control: for administrative purposes, Diocletian divided the Empire into four parts with four men sharing supreme power simultaneously. The Tetrarchy, as this form of government was called, brought political stability and put an end to the border wars.
    • 3. What were the milestone dates for the Christian religion in the fourth century and why were they important?
      Reveal Answer

      Important dates include at least 313, 325, and 380. In 313, the Christian religion received official recognition in the so-called Edict of Milan. Emperors Licinius and Constantine declared toleration for all the religions in the Empire. In fact, the Edict helped Christians above all: they had been the ones persecuted and now, in addition to enjoying the toleration declared in the Edict, they regained their property. In 325, Constantine called and presided over the Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical (universal) church council, in which the assembled bishops hammered out some of the canon law and major doctrines of the Christian church. In 380, with the Edict of Thessalonica and with other successive laws, Emperor Theodosius I declared that the form of Christianity determined at the Council of Nicaea applied to all Romans, and he outlawed all the old public and private cults. The years 313–380 saw Christianity’s transformation from a persecuted sect to the official religion of the Roman Empire.
    • 4. Who were the so-called Church Fathers and what part did they play in doctrinal disputes of Christianity’s first six centuries?
      Reveal Answer

      Church Fathers were highly influential churchmen who taught their “sons and daughters” (i.e. the faithful) the tenets of Christian orthodoxy. Famous among them were Athanasius and Augustine, who led battles over the doctrines of the Church and singled out for condemnation the first heresies—Arianism, Donatism, and Manichaeism. Their writings and their leading roles at Church councils shaped Christianity for centuries to come.
    • 5. What was the main point of Augustine’s City of God?
      Reveal Answer

      Inspired by the shocking sack of Rome inflicted by the Visigoths in 410, Augustine’s City of God defined two cities: the earthly one in which our feet are planted, in which we are born, learn to read, marry, get old, and die; and the heavenly one, on which our hearts and minds are fixed. The first, the “City of Man,” is impermanent, subject to fire, war, famine, and sickness; the second, the “City of God,” is the opposite. Only there is true, eternal happiness to be found. Yet the first, however imperfect, is where the institutions of society—local churches, schools, governments—make possible the attainment of the second. Thus “if anyone accepts the present life in such a spirit that he uses it with the end in view of [the City of God], … such a man may without absurdity be called happy, even now.” In Augustine’s hands, the old fixtures of the ancient world were reused and reoriented for a new Christian society.
    • 6. What are the relics of saints and why were they important to pious laypeople and clergymen?
      Reveal Answer

      Relics are bodies or parts of the bodies of deceased saints. They may also be items associated with saints, such as clothing or the soil around their tombs. When holy men and women died, their power (or rather God’s power working through them) lived on in their relics, which were believed to work miracles. Pious laypeople and clergymen wanted access to relics in order to connect individually or communally to the power of God acting through his saints.
    • 7. What do the archaeological findings near Wijster (today in the Netherlands) tell us about Germanic groups in general?
      Reveal Answer

      They suggest that the Germanic peoples were long used to a settled existence before any entered the Roman Empire. The settlement near Wijster was inhabited between c.150 and c.400, thus providing evidence that, contrary to earlier historical hypotheses, the people living there were not constantly “on the move.”
    • 8. What were the consequences of the battle of Adrianople (378)?
      Reveal Answer

      In 378, the Roman army lost the battle of Adrianople against the Visigoths, and Emperor Valens was killed on the field. The defeat meant more than the death of an emperor; it badly weakened the Roman army. Because the emperors needed soldiers and the Visigoths needed food and a place to settle, various arrangements were tried, including treaties making the Visigoths federates and promises of pay and reward. But the Visigoths considered all insufficient, and under their leader Alaric (d.410) they set out both to avenge their wrongs and to find land. One consequence was their sack of Rome in 410. This was a traumatic event for the Romans, symbolizing their weakness in the face of new groups that were beginning to assert their dominance within the Empire.
    • 9. Why did barbarians issue law codes for themselves and what models did they use?
      Reveal Answer

      Starting in the fifth century, as barbarians were taking over Roman institutions they issued laws to establish their own regulations. Their law codes drew greatly on their Roman imperial precedents and were indeed written in Latin rather than any barbarian language. The result was a combination of Roman legal tradition and barbarian tribal customs.
    • 10. In what ways did Emperor Justinian try to lead the Roman Empire back to its former glory? Was he successful?
      Reveal Answer

      Emperor Justinian tried to renew the Roman Empire’s former glory by fighting the Persians; by reconquering North Africa and Italy and even some of Spain; by issuing law codes (e.g. the Codex Justinianus); and by commissioning splendid buildings. His successes were only temporary. The war against the Persians was indecisive; the wars against the Vandals in North Africa and against the Ostrogoths in Italy seemed to give him victory, and the south of Spain was brought under Roman rule. (See Map 1.8.) But these triumphs did not bring back Rome’s former glory: although the territories in North Africa remained under Eastern Roman rule for about a century, the Lombards soon conquered most of Italy.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define “Tetrarchy.”
      Reveal Answer

      The Tetrarchy in Roman history refers to the form of government initiated by Emperor Diocletian (r.284–305) when he divided the Empire into four parts with four persons sharing power simultaneously.
    • 2. Define “Roman Province.”
      Reveal Answer

      Every region that the Romans conquered, except for Italy itself, was a “Roman province.”
    • 3. Define “ethnogenesis.”
      Reveal Answer

      Ethnogenesis refers to the process by which barbarian peoples gained and changed their identities as they joined with or broke away from other groups. Thus, ethnogenesis is opposed to a “biological” view of peoples; it sees “ethnicity” as a practice, as the active adoption of ethnic styles, myths, and habits that may change over time.
    • 4. Define “federates.”
      Reveal Answer

      By the Latin word foederati (federates), Romans referred to populations linked to Rome by a treaty (foedus) of alliance. By the end of the fourth century, tribes of Goths fought as “federates” for the Roman government under their own chiefs.
    • 5. Define “ecumenical.”
      Reveal Answer

      Ecumenical means “universal,” especially with regard to religion. A church council is said to be ecumenical (see e.g. the Council of Nicaea) when it assembles ecclesiastical dignitaries of the whole Christian Church.
    • 6. Define “clergy.”
      Reveal Answer

      Clergy refers to the body of people ordained for religious services (e.g. priests and bishops). Priests were supervised by their bishop, who was himself assisted by priests, deacons, and lesser servitors. Some bishops—those of Alexandria, Antioch, Carthage, Jerusalem, and Rome (whose bishop was later called the “pope”)—were more important than others.
    • 7. Define “laity.”
      Reveal Answer

      Laity (from the Greek laikos, meaning “of the people”) refers to the entirety of non-ordained people.
    • 8. Define “Eucharist.”
      Reveal Answer

      Eucharist in the Catholic Church refers to the consecrated bread and wine, which become the body and blood of Christ during the Mass.
    • 9. Define “heresy.”
      Reveal Answer

      Heresy refers to an idea or opinion that departs from Christian doctrine as determined by Church councils.
    • 10. Define “confessio.”
      Reveal Answer

      A place where martyrs or their relics were buried.
    • 11. Define “iconography.”
      Reveal Answer

      In art history, iconography refers to the identification, description, and interpretation of the subjects and symbols of painted or sculpted images.
  • Chapter 4
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. How did the new social class of the dynatoi threaten centralized imperial control over Byzantium?
      Reveal Answer

      The dynatoi took advantage of unaccustomed wealth, buying land from still impoverished peasants as yet untouched by the economic upswing of the tenth century. They made military men their clients and often held positions in government. From the end of the tenth century, imperial control had to contend with the decentralizing forces of these wealthy provincial landowners (e.g. the Dalasseni family). But the emperors were not dethroned, and a man such as Emperor Basil II triumphed over the families that challenged his reign to emerge even stronger than before.
    • 2. How have historians variously assessed Byzantine cultural identity?
      Reveal Answer

      Paul Magdalino emphasized the Orthodox identity of Byzantium. Other historians, impressed by the fact that the Byzantines spoke and wrote in Greek, saw Byzantine culture as a distant heir of Hellenism. Still others—Anthony Kaldellis is one—stressed continuities with Roman political forms. Recently, historian Averil Cameron has argued against seeking a single Byzantine identity. She prefers to find it in constant dialogue with its own many traditions and those of the other cultures—Persian, Slavic, European, Islamic—with whose histories it was a part.
    • 3. Who were the eunuchs at the Great Palace of Constantinople?
      Reveal Answer

      Eunuchs were men who had been castrated, normally as children, and raised to be teachers, doctors, or guardians of the women at court. Their status began to rise in the tenth century. Originally foreigners, they were increasingly recruited from the educated upper classes in the Byzantine Empire itself, even from imperial families. In addition to their duties in the women’s quarter of the palace, some of them accompanied the emperor during his most sacred and vulnerable activities. No one, it was thought, was as faithful, trustworthy, or spiritually pure as a eunuch.
    • 4. What was the experience of Jews in the Byzantine Empire around the middle of the eleventh century?
      Reveal Answer

      Toward the middle of the eleventh century, the Jews of Constantinople were expelled and resettled in a walled quarter in Pera, on the northern bank of the Golden Horn (see Map 4.1). Even if they did not expel Jews so dramatically, many Byzantine cities forbade Jews from mixing with Christians. Around the same time, the rights of Jews as “Roman citizens” were denied; henceforth, in law at least, they had only servile status. The Jewish religion was condemned as a heresy.
    • 5. When and why did the Rus people convert to the Byzantine form of Christianity?
      Reveal Answer

      The official conversion of the Rus to Christianity came under Vladimir in 988. It is likely that Vladimir chose the Byzantine form of Christianity because of the prestige of the Empire under Basil II.
    • 6. What caused the weakening of the Abbasid caliphate?
      Reveal Answer

      The key cause of the weakness of the Abbasid caliphate was lack of revenue. When landowners, governors, or recalcitrant military leaders in the various regions of the Islamic world refused to pay taxes into the treasury, the caliphs had to rely on the rich farmland of Iraq, long a stable source of income. But the Zanj, slaves who had cultivated the region, revolted from 869 to 883, devastating the Iraqi economy. Although the revolt was put down there was no chance for the caliphate to recover. In the tenth century the Qaramita, a sect of Shi‘ites based in Arabia, took the reins of power. They preserved the Abbasid line, but they reduced the caliph’s political authority to nothing.
    • 7. Where and when did the Fatimids rule, and what made them successful?
      Reveal Answer

      The Fatimids were Shi‘ites, taking their name from Muhammad’s daughter Fatimah, wife of Ali. Their leader claimed not only to be the true imam, descendant of Ali, but also the mahdi, the “divinely guided” messiah, come to bring justice on earth. Because of this, the Fatimids were proclaimed “caliphs” by their followers—the true “successors” of the Prophet. Originally, in the early tenth century, ruling in what is today Tunisia and Libya, they soon conquered Egypt, southern Syria, and part of the Arabian Peninsula, taking advantage of the decline of Abbasid power. Their empire was wealthy and cosmopolitan, with a flourishing textile industry and far-flung commercial relations. The Fatimids achieved the height of their power before the mid-eleventh century.
    • 8. What effect did the Viking invasions have on the organization of England during the reign of Alfred the Great?
      Reveal Answer

      The Viking invasions inspired English unification under the leadership of King Alfred of Wessex (r.871–899), who reorganized the army, set up strongholds (burhs), and levied a new tax (later called the Danegeld). As the Vikings settled and the invasions came to an end, Alfred and his successors gradually gained control over a united England.
    • 9. The history of tenth-century Germany was dominated by the rise of the Ottonian dynasty. Describe how the Ottonian kings established their power.
      Reveal Answer

      The Ottonian kings consolidated their power through military successes, strategic marriage alliances, and canny appointments of bishops and archbishops. Henry, Duke of Saxony and the most powerful man in Germany, was given the royal title by his fellow dukes. Otto I, Henry’s son, defeated rival families, rebellious dukes, and invading Hungarians and Slavs. In 951, he became king of Italy, while in 955 he gained enormous prestige by defeating the Hungarians at Lechfeld. In 962 he was crowned emperor at Rome.
    • 10. In what ways did tenth- and eleventh-century cities serve the interests of a variety of social groups?
      Reveal Answer

      Nobles, churchmen, peasants, and merchants all used cities as a base for their activities. Italy provides the best examples. There, wealthy and influential families established fortifications within city walls; from this secure position, lay and religious nobles dominated the city and its surrounding rural area (the contado). Peasants came to the city to bring rents to urban landlords and to sell their goods at city markets, where their clients included nobles, middle-class shopkeepers, artisans, and merchants. Merchants also used the city as a base of operations.
    • 11. What dynasty displaced the Carolingians in tenth-century France? In what region did its substantial estates lay?
      Reveal Answer

      The Carolingians were displaced by the Capetian dynasty in 987, when powerful men of the realm, seeking to stave off civil war, elected Hugh Capet as their king. The Capetians’ scattered but substantial estates were in the north of France, in the region around Paris called “Ile-de-France” (“Island of France”).
    • 12. What new states emerged in East Central Europe between the tenth and eleventh centuries? How did they form “an interconnected bloc” (p. 150)?
      Reveal Answer

      The new states were Bohemia, Poland, and Hungary. By the first half of the eleventh century, all three states were Christianized. In many ways they formed “an interconnected bloc” as their ruling houses intermarried with one another and with the great families of the German empire to their west.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define mausolea.
      Reveal Answer

      Mausolea are buildings used for burials. Each may hold more than one body. They were particularly popular in Shi‘ite cultures such as the Fatimid.
    • 2. Define “dynatoi” (sing. dynatos).
      Reveal Answer

      The dynatoi—meaning “powerful men”—were a new (tenth-century) class of wealthy provincial landowners in the Byzantine Empire.
    • 3. Define “fideles,” “homines,” and “vassalli.”
      Reveal Answer

      These words mean, respectively, “faithful ones,” “men,” and “vassals.” All were used to refer to men (and sometimes women) of the upper, free classes who were involved in private, personal relationships. Vassals depended on lords for various things—for food and clothing, sometimes for land, and almost always for protection and support. In turn, lords depended on vassals—to serve them, fight for them, show them deference, and support them.
    • 4. Define “burhs.”
      Reveal Answer

      Burhs were defensive strongholds. They were part of the military reforms fostered by King Alfred of England in the second half of the ninth century.
    • 5. Define “taifas.”
      Reveal Answer

      After 1031, al-Andalus was split into small emirates called taifas, ruled by local strongmen.
    • 6. Define “shire.”
      Reveal Answer

      In the tenth century, England was divided into districts that were called shires. Each shire had a sheriff, appointed by the king, to oversee its administration.
    • 7. Define “contado.”
      Reveal Answer

      The contado was the rural area located outside—but nevertheless seen as an integral part of—Italian cities.
    • 8. Define “castellan.”
      Reveal Answer

      A castellan held a castle. From it, he, with the help of his men (who manned the castle), ruled over the local population. Castles might be very primitive wooden fortifications, though some were more sturdy stone structures. A castellan might hold more than one castle, and he exercised the ban—the right to command and punish—over the territories dominated by these castles.
    • 9. Define “fief.”
      Reveal Answer

      A fief (feodum in Latin) was an estate that was held by a vassal from a lord and generally was connected with his military service.
      Long-Answer Questions
    • 1. Compare the political importance of private relationships in France, Germany, and England, c.900–c.1050.
      Reveal Answer

      You might note that private relationships were not equally important in all regions of Europe. Below are some examples:

      France:

      • Private relationships were clearly important in France, as regions came under the control of local leaders, who acted as the lords of free vassals and unfree peasants.

      • French kings had no consistent tax base and could not pay salaried officials. Instead, they depended on the personal loyalties of their vassals, to whom they gave fiefs.

      • The counts and dukes of France were (theoretically at least) vassals of the king.


       

      Germany:

      • Vassalage was not very important in Germany, though other forms of personal relations, such as those forged through marriage alliances and investiture ceremonies, were of great significance.

      • Though the dukes of Germany were not vassals of the king, not even theoretically, they did owe him loyalty for his disbursements of wealth, land, and offices.


       

      England:

      • Like Germany, while vassalage was not a pervasive institution in England the idea of personal loyalty was important. The great landowners adhered to the king because they found it in their interest to do so.

      • Nevertheless, other institutions also regulated political life; consider, for example, Alfred’s law code, written for all of non-Viking England.

    • 2. To what extent and where did the various invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries in Europe lead to an acceleration of either political fragmentation or centralization?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these points:

      • In France, invasions led to an acceleration of political fragmentation. As the French king was too weak to stave off Viking attacks effectively, local lords took over regional defense. Afterwards they remained independent in power and authority.

      • In Germany and England, invasions had the opposite effect.

      • The Viking invasions in England made it possible for King Alfred of Wessex and his successors to consolidate their power over most of the other English kingdoms. Alfred organized and centralized defensive institutions, building burhs and creating a navy, and he issued a law code to apply to all the kingdoms.

      • In Germany, Viking, Slav, and Hungarian invasions turned military leaders into kings (consider Henry I), and kings into emperors (consider Otto I). In this sense, invasions served to decrease regional power struggles.

      • The Viking invasions eastward led to the formation of Kievan Rus’, the first centralized state in the region.

    • 3. How was the period around 1000 important in the creation of many of the states of Europe?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these points:

      • Although the history of Kievan Rus’ began before c.1000, the conversion of Vladimir (r.c.978–1015) to the Byzantine form of Christianity brought Rus’ into a wider cultural, religious, and political network.

      • Around 1000 the kings of Denmark and Norway converted to the Roman form of Christianity, thus allying their states with the western (not Byzantine) cultural, religious, and political network. They strengthened their hold over their kingdoms with the help of the Church.

      • In 990/991 Mieszko consolidated his rule by placing Poland under the protection of the Roman papacy. In 1000/1001 Stephen of Hungary was crowned king, turning to Christian and classical models of rulership to give strength and coherence to his fledgling state.

    • 4. Describe the making of an illuminated manuscript.
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer should include the following phases:

      • Cutting the parchment to the desired size of the book and folding the rectangular sheet in half to obtain two pages (recto and verso).

      • Putting together several folded sheets to form a quire (or gathering).

      • Ruling the pages—i.e., making the lines that would keep the writing even and straight—by joining up prick marks made through a closed quire along a measured grid.

      • Making a sketch for the illumination and applying gold leaf to selected letters or figures.

      • Painting the rest of the sketch.

      • Binding the whole book.

  • Chapter 5
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. Who were the Seljuk Turks and how did they reconfigure the late eleventh-century Christian and Islamic worlds?
      Reveal Answer

      The Seljuk Turks were nomadic warriors from the Kazakh steppe—the extensive Eurasian grasslands of Kazakhstan. In the eleventh century they entered the Islamic world and took over its eastern half. Eventually penetrating deep into Anatolia, they took a great bite out of Byzantium. By the end of the century they had formed two sultanates: the Great Seljuk sultanate (based in Iran), and the sultanate of Rum (in Anatolia). As Sunni Muslims, the Seljuks ended the domination of the Shi‘ites in the wake of Abbasid decline. Their conquests in Anatolia led indirectly to the First Crusade (1096), which was Pope Urban II’s response to the Byzantine emperor Alexis’s request for military aid.
    • 2. How did the Almoravids go from pastoralists to state-builders?
      Reveal Answer

      Originally pastoralists from the Sahara Desert, the Berber Sanhaja tribesmen followed a strict form of Sunni orthodoxy. Fired with zeal on behalf of their religious beliefs and also seeking economic opportunity, the Sanhaja formed a federation known as the Murabitun (Almoravids) and began conquering the (largely Shi‘ite) regions to their north—the Maghreb. The foundation of their city at Marrakesh c.1070 marked the Almoravid transformation from nomadic tribespeople to settled state. After 1086, they began to conquer al-Andalus, which they eventually controlled by c.1115.
    • 3. What sort of diplomacy helped the Byzantines to cope with new enemies in the eleventh century?
      Reveal Answer

      In the eleventh century, as the Byzantine army was becoming less and less effective, emperors turned to diplomacy to confront new invaders. Unable to prevent the Pechenegs from entering the Balkans, they shifted policy: welcoming them, administering baptism, conferring titles, and settling them in depopulated regions. Much the same process took place in Anatolia, where the emperors at times welcomed the Seljuk Turks to help them fight rival dynatoi. Here the invaders were sometimes also welcomed by Christians who did not adhere to Byzantine orthodoxy. The Byzantine grip on its territories loosened and its frontiers became nebulous. But Byzantium still stood.
    • 4. When and how did the Normans take over Sicily?
      Reveal Answer

      The Normans, some of whom had established themselves in southern Italy, began attacks on Muslim Sicily in 1060 and conquered it by 1093. Still more ambitiously, they attacked Byzantine territory as well. In 1130, the Norman king Roger II ruled over a realm known as the Kingdom of Sicily; it included the whole of Sicily and also southern Italy. (See Map 5.3.)
    • 5. What is meant by the “quickening of the European economy” (p. 172) and what were its features?
      Reveal Answer

      The quickening—or enlivening—of the European economy was characterized by 1) a more productive agricultural sector; 2) the growth of old urban centers and the establishment of new ones; 3) increasing commerce and industry; 4) construction of new buildings, roads, bridges, and the like; 5) the elaboration of new legal and monetary institutions to facilitate trade; and, 6) the development of a large urban population that often demanded its own laws and self-government (communes).
    • 6. What effect did the Gregorian Reform have on relations between the papacy and Byzantium?
      Reveal Answer

      The Gregorian Reform worsened the relations between the papacy and Byzantium, as new papal claims on power threatened the position of the patriarch in Constantinople. In 1054, the patriarch resisted the new view and was excommunicated. In response, he excommunicated his excommunicator, the papal legate Humbert of Silva Candida. This clash between the churches is referred to as the Great Schism. It was never entirely resolved, and the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches remain separate to this day.
    • 7. What important principle was at stake in the Investiture Conflict? Why did it involve the German emperor and not, for instance, the king of France?
      Reveal Answer

      The key issue in the Investiture Conflict was who had the right to appoint and invest bishops: the pope or the German emperor. For centuries, kings—and then emperors—had exercised this right. The pope, who was a bishop himself and wanted to free the church from worldly influences, disputed the emperor’s role. It is true that the French and English kings were as involved in investitures as the German emperor was. But the emperor happened to exercise his customary rights in Italy, and this encroached on what the papacy saw as its exclusive sphere of influence. Thus, the chief battles were fought between the popes and the emperors, even though the principle itself was important across Europe.
    • 8. When and how did the Investiture Conflict end?
      Reveal Answer

      The conflict ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122, which represented a compromise. The Concordat relied on a conceptual distinction between the two parts of investiture: the spiritual and the secular. In the first part of the ceremony the bishop-to-be was to receive from another churchman the spiritual symbols of his office, the ring and staff. In the second part, he was to be touched with a scepter by the emperor or his representative, signifying the secular lands and other possessions that went with his office. In the end, then, secular rulers continued to matter in the appointment of churchmen.
    • 9. What were the main objectives of the First Crusade? How did they signal a new monarchical role for the papacy?
      Reveal Answer

      The main objectives of the First Crusade were not, as the Byzantines hoped, to help Byzantium retake Anatolia from the Seljuks but to undertake an armed pilgrimage under the leadership of the pope and to free the Holy Land from the Muslims. In other words, the crusaders intended to conquer the Holy Land. Calling men to arms and organizing military expeditions were usually the work of monarchs and other secular rulers. That the pope’s new role included this, along with his expanded bureaucracy and court system, suggests that the papacy had turned into a monarchy.
    • 10. When and why did England come under Norman rule?
      Reveal Answer

      England had been linked to the Continent by the Vikings, who settled in its eastern half in the ninth century. On the Continent, the Vikings had been absorbed above all in Normandy, a duchy that they received in 911 from the Frankish king Charles the Simple. In 1066, Duke William of Normandy left the Continent for England to dispute the crown of the childless King Edward the Confessor (r.1042–1066), who had died earlier that year. Opposing his claim was Harold Godwineson, Edward’s brother-in-law, earl of Wessex, and crowned king of England the day after Edward’s death. He confronted William at Hastings, where he lost the one-day battle. William was crowned the first Norman king of England. (See Genealogy 5.4.)
    • 11. Who was Suger and what was his role in enhancing the position of the king of France?
      Reveal Answer

      Suger (1081–1151) was the abbot of Saint-Denis, a monastery just outside Paris as well as the biographer of and propagandist for the king of France, Louis VI. Louis’s virtues were amplified and broadcast by Suger, a close associate of the king. When Louis set himself the task of consolidating his rule in the Ile-de-France, Suger portrayed the king as a righteous hero. The king, said Suger, was more than a lord with rights over the French nobles as his vassals; he was a peacekeeper with the God-given duty to fight unruly strongmen. Suger also emphasized Louis’s role as vigorous protector of the faith and insisted on the sacred importance of the royal dignity.
    • 12. What was the significance of the conquest of Toledo in 1085?
      Reveal Answer

      Before 1085, the king of León and Castile, Alfonso VI, successfully pushed south, conquering the various taifa states in his way. But when he took Toledo, the Almoravids agreed to help the princes of al-Andalus. Their “help” turned into conquest. See Map 5.8.
    • 13. When and how did Portugal become an independent kingdom?
      Reveal Answer

      Ironically, Portugal (the name came from Portucalia: land of ports) was the creation of Alfonso VI, king of Castile and León. Ruler of the county of Portugal as king of León, in 1095 he granted his rights there to his illegitimate daughter Teresa and her husband, Henry of Burgundy. They remained Alfonso’s vassals, but their son, Count Afonso Henriques, rejected the domination of León, took the title of prince of Portugal in 1129, and began to encroach on Islamic territory to his south. In 1139 he defeated the Almoravids and took the title of king of Portugal under the name of Afonso I, though it was not until 1179 that Pope Alexander III (1159–1181) acknowledged Portugal as an independent kingdom.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define “madrasas.”
      Reveal Answer

      The word refers to Islamic schools of advanced scholarship. Normally attached to mosques, the madrasas were attended by young men studying religion, law, and literature.
    • 2. Define “iqta.”
      Reveal Answer

      Something like the European fief, the iqta was a way to pay for military service by giving fighters the right to collect the revenues due from a particular piece of land. Under the Seljuks its use was greatly expanded to pay not only army leaders (emirs), but also bureaucrats and favored members of the dynasty.
    • 3. Define “guilds.”
      Reveal Answer

      Guilds were associations of craftspeople and other professionals ranging from merchants and financiers to shoemakers. In these social, religious, and economic associations, members prayed for and buried one another; regulated the products they produced; and offered one another protection, shared identity, and recognized status. Guilds guaranteed their members—mostly male, with the exception of a few professions—a place in the market.
    • 4. Define “nicolaitism” and “simony.”
      Reveal Answer

      Nicolaitism refers to clerical marriage and simony to buying church offices. Both were considered abuses and were banned by eleventh-century church reformers.
    • 5. Define “reconquista.”
      Reveal Answer

      Meaning “reconquest,” the word refers to the Christian expansion at the expense of the Islamic territories of al-Andalus (Spain). From the eleventh century on, it was waged under the aegis of the papacy, which transformed the reconquista into a holy war.
    • 6. Define “investiture.”
      Reveal Answer

      Investiture was the ritual by which bishops and other clergymen were placed in office. In Germany and Italy, it was traditionally presided over by the emperor or his representative. Because it included elements that symbolized the handing over of both the church office and the lands belonging to the church, it became a point of conflict between the pope and the emperor during the Investiture Conflict.
    • 7. Define “granges.”
      Reveal Answer

      Cistercian monasteries held large and highly organized farms and grazing lands called “granges.” The monks spent much of their time managing their estates and flocks of sheep, which yielded handsome profits by the end of the twelfth century.
    • 8. Define “Romanesque.”
      Reveal Answer

      Romanesque is an architectural style that came to its peak in twelfth-century Europe. Built of stone, Romanesque churches are massive, weighty, and dignified. They are often enlivened by sculpture, wall paintings, or patterned textures.
    • 9. Define “commune.”
      Reveal Answer

      A commune was the term for a town’s self-government. City dwellers recognized their mutual interest in these communes, which provided for reliable coinage, laws to facilitate commerce, freedom from servile dues and services, and independence to buy and sell as the market dictated. City dwellers petitioned (or fought) the political powers that ruled them—bishops, kings, counts, castellans, dukes—for the right to have a commune. Collective movements for urban self-government were especially prevalent in Italy, France, and Germany.
    • 10. Define “Domesday Book.”
      Reveal Answer

      A survey of people and property in England ordered in 1086 by William I after his conquest there in 1066.
      Long-Answer Questions
    • 1. Compare the objectives and results of the “European crusades” in northern Spain, the Rhineland, and the First Crusade in the Holy Land.
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these points:

      • The Europeans involved in the First Crusade fought in order to free the Holy Land from the Muslims, who were considered a “wicked race,” and to conquer it for themselves. The First Crusade resulted in the Christian occupation of the Levant and the creation of the Crusader States.

      • The reconquista under the leadership of Christian rulers in northern Spain was based on the notion that Spain had once been Christian (under the Visigoths) and that Christians had a holy mission to reconquer it from the Muslims. Unlike the First Crusade, which conquered land far from Europe, the reconquista incorporated formerly Muslim territories into existing Christian kingdoms.

      • The crusade to the Rhineland began as part of the First Crusade but took an alternative path in order to attack the Jews, who were considered to be a “wicked race” closer to home than the Muslims. The Europeans who participated in this attack sought to purify the Rhineland of a pernicious religion by killing its practitioners or forcing them to convert. They did not seek to conquer the region, but they sought money and plunder from the Jews they attacked.

    • 2. How did the Gregorian Reform revolutionize the church? In your opinion, did the reformers succeed in freeing the church from the world? Why or why not?
      Reveal Answer

      Main goals of the reformers:

      • To purify the church and free it from the world, Church reformers singled out and then swept away two clerical abuses: nicolaitism and simony.

      • To assert papal leadership, indeed supremacy, over the church, Pope Leo IX (1049–1054) revolutionized the papacy. He had himself elected by the “clergy and people” to satisfy the demands of canon law. Unlike earlier popes, Leo often left Rome to preside over church councils and make the pope’s influence felt outside Italy, especially in France and Germany.

      • Papal supremacy was formulated along the following lines: as the successor to the special privileges of Saint Peter (the power to "bind and loose,” i.e., the power to impose penance and absolve from sins), the pope was the chief authority of the Roman church, which he claimed was the “head and mother of all churches.”

      • Since Pope Gregory VII (1073–1085) advocated papal primacy, he clashed directly with the king of Germany over church leadership. The Investiture Conflict thus began.

      • To wield power over church matters, the reformed papacy, now acting like a monarchy, began to wield new forms of power, calling for holy wars against the enemies of the church and setting up revenue collecting and judicial bureaucracies.


       

      You might argue that the reformers did succeed:

      • The church increased its power and authority by defying emperors, promulgating canon law, and lessening the influence of the emperor on the investiture of churchmen.


       

      You might also argue that the reformers did not succeed:

      • The Investiture Conflict ended in a compromise (the Concordat of Worms, 1122) and was therefore not a complete success for the pope. Moreover, the papacy didn’t really stop dealing with worldly matters (consider its call for a war later called the Crusades). Meanwhile, secular rulers continued to have considerable say in the appointment of churchmen and considerable prestige as defenders of the faith.

    • 3. Historians have dubbed the revival of urban life and the expansion of trade a “commercial revolution.” How did the European economy develop in the period c.1050-c.1150?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these points:

      • The “commercial revolution” was sustained and invigorated by merchants. Some were local traders, others—mainly Jews and Italians—were long-distance traders, much in demand because they supplied fine wines, spices, and fabrics to the aristocracy.

      • Merchants invented new forms of collective enterprises to pool their resources and finance large undertakings.

      • A cloth industry began, powered by water mills.

      • New deep-mining technologies provided Europeans with hitherto untapped sources of metals. Forging techniques improved, and iron was for the first time regularly used for agricultural tools and plows, enhancing food production.

      • Surplus food and healthier people in turn became one of the foundations for the growth of old and the development of new urban centers.

      • City dwellers elaborated new instruments of commerce, self-regulating organizations (above all, guilds), and forms of self-government (often communes).

    • 4. What new forms of learning and religious life emerged at the end of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth century? What factors explain their development at that time?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these points:

      • New forms of learning included emphasis on the systematic study of the liberal arts—grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Of these arts, logic had pride of place in the new schools.

      • New schools and universities sprang up as advanced learning became institutionalized. Paris became the center for the study of theology; Bologna for the study of law (including canon law); Salerno and Montpellier for the study of medicine.

      • New forms of religious life focused on rejecting wealth and embracing poverty. The Carthusians and Cistercians reacted against the wealth of the black monks (e.g., the Cluniacs) and sought simpler lives. They sought simplicity as well in their buildings and clothing.

      • Both the new scholarship and new forms of religious life were responding to the rise of a commercial economy. Money and excellent career opportunities drew people to urban centers of learning, but others fled the money economy and sought the seclusion of a hermit’s life.

  • Chapter 6
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. Why and how did Saladin rise to power, and what did he achieve?
      Reveal Answer

      Saladin was the son of Ayyub, a Kurdish leader of a family of warriors known as the Ayyubids. His rise to power began when his uncle Shirkuh (Ayyub’s brother) was sent to Egypt in 1164 by emir Nur al-Din to resolve a dispute over the Fatimid vizierate. In 1169, Shirkuh himself took over the powerful position of Egyptian vizier, and when he died, Saladin succeeded him. In 1171, Saladin became the ruler of Egypt and from that base he reformed Islam according to Sunni teaching, took over Syria, and waged jihad against the Crusader States. In 1187 at the battle of Hattin he conquered Jerusalem.
    • 2. Who were the Almohads and when did they take over al-Andalus?
      Reveal Answer

      The Almohads were a Berber group from the Maghreb (the western part of North Africa). They espoused a militant form of Sunni Islam. In al-Andalus their appearance in 1145 induced some Islamic rulers to seek alliances with the Christian rulers to the north. But other Andalusian rulers joined forces with the Almohads, who replaced the Almoravids as rulers of the whole Islamic far west by 1172, making Seville their capital (see Map 6.2).
    • 3. Why was Constantinople vulnerable to attack in 1204?
      Reveal Answer

      Constantinople’s vulnerability was military, economic, and social. The emperor relied largely on foreign mercenaries for defense. The population of Constantinople was impoverished and demoralized, blaming (with some justification) foreigners like the Italian merchants for their problems. In the countryside the dynatoi, wealthy provincial landowners, had no interest in defending the imperial city.
    • 4. How did the Byzantines react in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade?
      Reveal Answer

      The Byzantines regrouped and persisted. Byzantine leaders formed three new states, the Despotate of Epirus, the Empire of Trebizond, and the Empire of Nicaea. At Nicaea, Emperor Theodore I (r.1205–1221) set up a capital city modeled on Constantinople. He was crowned by a new patriarch, and his court attracted elites exiled from Constantinople. Between that time and 1261, when one of Theodore’s successors succeeded in recapturing Constantinople, the Byzantine way of life did not end.
    • 5. How did the English king Henry II use the legal system to enhance his power?
      Reveal Answer

      Henry imposed a common law on all of England for chief crimes, such as murder and arson. He set up a system of itinerant justices to visit each locality yearly to inquire about crimes and suspected crimes at a formal meeting of representatives of the knights of the shire. Suspects had to be handed over to the royal justices for trial. Henry also offered royal adjudication in cases of property disputes. The crown’s power was enhanced through its role as the enforcer of law and order in every district of England. And it gained considerable revenue through legal fees and fines.
    • 6. What were the issues in dispute between the English king Henry II and the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket? How did their conflict end?
      Reveal Answer

      Archbishop Thomas Becket objected to having clerics accused of serious crimes submit to the jurisdiction of Henry II’s royal courts. Henry II also insisted on the king’s right to have ultimate jurisdiction over church appointments and property disputes. The ensuing contest resulted in some compromises at a meeting held at Clarendon in 1164. But Becket soon thereafter clashed with Henry over the rights of the church of Canterbury—Becket’s church—to recover or alienate its own property. The conflict mushroomed to include control over the whole English church, its property, and its clergy. In 1170, Becket was murdered by Henry’s henchmen, unintentionally turning him into a martyr. In the end, the struggle made both institutions stronger. Both church and royal courts expanded to address the concerns of an increasingly litigious society.
    • 7. Discuss the German involvement in the Kingdom of Sicily, from the time of Barbarossa to the “Sicilian Vespers.”
      Reveal Answer

      Frederick I Barbarossa’s failure in northern Italy at the Battle of Legnano (1176) led him to try a southern strategy. By marrying his son Henry VI (r.1190–1197) to Constance, heiress of the Kingdom of Sicily, Barbarossa linked the fate of his dynasty to a well-organized monarchy—still ruled by the Normans—that commanded dazzling wealth. Frederick II (1194–1250), the son of Henry VI and Constance, tried to unite Sicily, Italy, and Germany into an imperial unit. But the papacy, fearful of encirclement by the Staufen dynasty, called upon Charles of Anjou, brother of the king of France, to take over the Kingdom of Sicily in 1263. Undeterred, Frederick’s granddaughter, Constance, who was married to the King of Aragon (Spain), took the title “Queen of Sicily.” In 1282, the Sicilians revolted against the Angevins in the uprising known as the “Sicilian Vespers,” begging the Aragonese for aid. Bitter war ensued, ending only in 1302 when the Kingdom of Sicily was split: the island became a Spanish outpost, while its mainland portion (southern Italy) remained under Angevin control.
    • 8. How did the king of France increase his power in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries?
      Reveal Answer

      The French king did not have a system of common law (as the English king had). But the French king drew on other sources of authority, especially through his governmental bureaucracy. He had his orders written down and archived, and he established officials to carry out his orders: prévôts to oversee his estates and collect taxes; baillis to serve as judges over local courts.
    • 9. How have historians and literary critics used—and rejected—the terms “courtly love” and “fin’amor” in talking about medieval love poetry?
      Reveal Answer

      The term “courtly love” was popularized by Gaston Paris in 1883. For him, it meant the poet’s adulterous love for a married woman of far higher rank. In the 1960s and 1970s, however, the term was roundly criticized by scholars who judged that medieval authors were being ironic when and if they praised profane love. Nowadays critics tend to be more comfortable talking about fin’amor (refined or pure love), a phrase found in some medieval literature itself. But as Linda Paterson has pointed out, the meaning of even that term varied from poet to poet. In fact, the troubadours sang about many sorts of love: some boasted of sexual conquests; others played with the notion of equality between lovers; still others sang of love and desire as the source of virtue.
    • 10. How did guilds and communes interact in the period c.1150–c.1250?
      Reveal Answer

      Guilds, as we saw in Chapter 5, were social and religious organizations that also regulated and protected urban craftspeople and professionals. In the early thirteenth century, guilds drew up statutes to determine dues, regulate working hours, fix wages, and set standards for materials and products. Sometimes they came into conflict with town governments (communes); at other times, the communes supported guild efforts to control wages, reinforcing guild regulations with statutes of their own.
    • 11. When and how did Ireland fall into English hands?
      Reveal Answer

      In 1169 the Irish king of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada (Dermot MacMurrough), enlisted some lords and knights from England to help him first keep, then expand, his kingdom. The English fighters succeeded all too well; when Diarmait died (1171), some of the English decided to stay, claiming Leinster for themselves. The king of England, Henry II, reacted swiftly. Gathering an army, he invaded Ireland in 1171. The lords of the 1169 expedition recognized his suzerainty almost immediately. They were allowed to keep their new territories, but their Irish holdings were now redefined as fiefs from the king. Most of the native Irish kings submitted to the English in similar manner. The English came to Ireland to stay, and they introduced their own institutions there.
      Regarding Maps
    • 1. Compare Map 6.4 with Map 5.5. What is new about the power of England in the late twelfth century? Explain how England came to control such an enormous realm. What sorts of power did the Angevin king of England, Henry II, exercise?
      Reveal Answer

      In Map 5.5, which shows the situation c.1100, England was tied to Normandy via the Norman Conquest of 1066. By the end of the twelfth century, as may be seen in Map 6.4, the Angevin king Henry II had taken over the crown of England. Henry was count of Anjou, duke of Normandy, and overlord of about half the other counties of northern France. He was also duke of Aquitaine by his marriage to Eleanor, heiress of that vast southern French duchy. As for his power in the British Isles: the princes of Wales swore homage and fealty to him; the rulers of Ireland were forced to submit to him; and the king of Scotland was his vassal. Thus Henry II exercised sometimes more, sometimes less power over a realm stretching from northern England to the Pyrenees. For his continental possessions, he was vassal of the king of France.
    • 2. Compare Map 6.4 with Map 6.7. Discuss the new outline of the French kingdom.
      Reveal Answer

      When Philip II (r.1180–1223) came to the throne at the age of fifteen, his kingdom consisted largely of the Ile-de-France. As Map 6.4 shows, his kingdom was surrounded by numerous independent counts and dukes. It was also the target of the ambitions of the English king Henry II. However, through military might and political skills, Philip II gradually expanded his domains (Normandy was the major conquest of his career). By c.1230, Gascony was all that was left to the English king.detail that the Almohads lavished on their religious architecture.
    • 3. Compare Map 6.2 with Map. 6.5. What happened to the Islamic territories of al-Andalus?
      Reveal Answer

      The reconquista was the engine driving the expansion of Christian kingdoms deep into the southern Islamic territories of al-Andalus. The Almohads had been soundly beaten at the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in 1212. By c.1275, only a thin corridor of land (south of the Guadalquivir River) was still held by the Islamic forces.
    • 4. How does Map 6.6 help explain why Pope Alexander III joined with the cities of northern Italy to oust Frederick I Barbarossa?
      Reveal Answer

      After the Investiture Conflict (see Chapter 5), the power of the emperor over Italy had become purely symbolic. Frederick I Barbarossa was determined to revive it, especially over the rich cities of northern Italy, which he thought would provide him with both a compact power base and the revenues that he needed. But his sovereignty over the communes of northern Italy would have threatened the Papal States, as Map 6.6 makes clear. By 1167, Pope Alexander III had joined most of the northern cities to form the Lombard League against the emperor. It proved to be a winning move when the League defeated the emperor at the decisive battle of Legnano in 1176.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define “common law.”
      Reveal Answer

      Part of the reform program of the English king Henry II, common law covered many major crimes and was meant to be applicable throughout England to all free men and women.
    • 2. Define “Magna Carta.”
      Reveal Answer

      Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215 by English barons in revolt against King John of England for demanding from them heavy and unaccustomed obligations and dues in the wake of his military defeat on the Continent at the battle of Bouvines. Magna Carta forced the king to recognize and respect the customary obligations and rights of the nobility and of all free men in general. The king could not change these customs without consulting his barons. Magna Carta implied that the king was not above the law and customs of his realm, and thus it was a step in setting up institutionalized limits on the monarch’s authority and power.
    • 3. Define “fueros.”
      Reveal Answer

      A detailed set of laws that became a model for all the conquered cities of Spain during the Christian reconquista. The fueros were first issued by King Alfonso VIII of Castile in 1177 at Cuenca in order to codify judicial institutions that safeguarded the peace and rights of city dwellers. The fueros also regulated relations between local Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
    • 4. Define “troubadours.”
      Reveal Answer

      In the south of France, a significant number of men and women were troubadours (or, in the case of women, trobairitz). They were both poets and musicians, singing in Old Occitan, the vernacular of the region. Duke William IX of Aquitaine (1071–1126) is usually considered the first of the troubadours. William was independently wealthy, but many other troubadours lived off the largess of the princes at whose courts they entertained.
    • 5. Define “chansons de geste.”
      Reveal Answer

      This genre of long epic poetry, literally “songs of [heroic] deeds,” made warfare its central theme as it explored aristocratic behaviors, moral dilemmas, and norms.
    • 6. Define “chivalry.”
      Reveal Answer

      The word, deriving from the French cheval (“horse”), emphasized above all that the knight was a horseman, a warrior of the most prestigious sort. The code of chivalry made the knight gentle, gave his battles a higher meaning, whether for love of a lady or of God. The chivalric hero was constrained by courtesy, fair play, piety, and devotion to an ideal.
    • 7. Define “Gothic.”
      Reveal Answer

      By the mid-thirteenth century, “Gothic” (the term itself comes from the sixteenth century) was the European building style of choice. Beginning as a variant of Romanesque in the Ile-de-France, Gothic style quickly took on an identity of its own, with many regional variants. By and large, Gothic architects tried to eliminate heavy walls by enlivening them with sculpture or piercing them with glass, creating a soaring feel by using pointed arches. Gothic was mostly an urban architecture, reflecting—in its grand size, jewel-like windows, and bright ornaments—the aspirations, pride, and confidence of rich and powerful merchants, artisans, and bishops.
    • 8. Define “transubstantiation.”
      Reveal Answer

      This was the term that the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) used to describe what happened during the Mass when the wafer and wine were consecrated: they became the actual flesh and blood of Christ while continuing to look like bread and wine.
    • 9. Define “blood libel.”
      Reveal Answer

      Historians call “blood libel” the accusation made against Jews of secretly sacrificing Christian children in a morbid revisiting of the crucifixion of Jesus. Reflecting Christian anxieties about real flesh upon the altar (introduced by the transubstantiation dogma in 1215), these sensational stories originated in clerical circles but soon circulated widely. “Blood libel” led to massacres of Jews in cities in England, France, Spain, and Germany. In this way, Jews became convenient and vulnerable scapegoats for Christian guilt and anxiety about eating Christ’s flesh.
    • 10. Define “dualists.”
      Reveal Answer

      The Church termed “dualists” those whom it accused of believing that the world was torn between two great forces, one good and the other evil. Dualism was known to well-educated churchmen such as Saint Augustine, who had briefly flirted with the dualists of his own day before decisively breaking with them. Moreover, some dualist groups flourished in the Byzantine Empire. In the thirteenth century in the West, the Cathars were called dualists (although they considered themselves true Christians), and their doctrine was classified as heretical. They were persecuted during the Albigensian Crusade, 1209–1229, and after.
      Long-Answer Questions
    • 1. Compare the issues involved in the Investiture Conflict (see Chapter 5) with those that pulled apart the papacy and Frederick I Barbarossa.
      Reveal Answer

      Some points to consider:

      • The struggle between the papacy and Frederick I Barbarossa was theoretically over the status of the imperial crown and empire, and more practically over who controlled Italy. This was not quite the issue in the Investiture Conflict, which centered on control over churches and churchmen.

      • Related to the question of status was the quarrel over whether the imperial crown was a “fief” granted by the pope or the emperor’s by right. During the Investiture Conflict, Pope Gregory VII saw it as his right to depose the emperor, but he did not claim that the empire was a papal fief. By contrast, when papal representatives met with Frederick I Barbarossa in 1157, they suggested that the imperial crown was "from the pope." (Then again, the word they used, beneficium, was ambiguous; perhaps Pope Adrian IV, whose letter they were referring to, meant not fief but rather “benefit.”)

      • Frederick I Barbarossa declared the empire a sacrum imperium—a holy empire—making a new claim about its sacredness that even Henry IV had not maintained during the Investiture Conflict.

      • Frederick held northern Italy until 1176. On that date, the Lombard League (an alliance of the papacy and north Italian cities) defeated him at the battle of Legnano. During the Investiture Conflict, Italian cities were far less important allies of the papacy, which found its best support among the landed nobility, especially Matilda of Tuscany.

      • Thus, the theoretical and practical issues in the two imperial-papal conflicts were somewhat different. Yet both conflicts were about who exercised power in the empire, over whom, and by what right.

    • 2. Compare the ways in which royal government was institutionalized in England, France and Germany in the period c.1150–c.1250.
      Reveal Answer

      Some points to consider:

      In England:

      • The king imposed royal justice through the expansion of the legal system, especially through itinerant courts (the local hearing that the royal justices held was called an “eyre”).
        Royal justice was made available for property disputes.

      • The king’s officials recorded all fines for the exchequer; these records were kept on “rolls” (e.g. the Pipe Rolls).

      • The "common law" of the land touched everyone in England.


       

      In France:

      • The king integrated new territories (especially Normandy) under his administration.

      • The king had all royal decrees written down and kept in permanent repositories.

      • The king hired officers to oversee his estates, collect taxes, and sit as judges in local courts.

      • As a result, at the local level French royal power was felt, but the king’s justices did not administer “his” justice so much as local laws.


       

      In Germany:

      • Frederick I Barbarossa had to rely on the personal loyalty of the German princes, whom he made his vassals. He had few salaried officials.

      • As a result, at the local level the emperor exercised direct power only where he had his own estates (e.g. Swabia).

    • 3. Discuss the main innovations of the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215.
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer should include the following points:

      • Christians were required to receive communion—i.e., the Eucharist—at Mass and to confess their sins to a priest at least once a year.

      • Marriage was declared a sacrament, and bishops were assigned jurisdiction over marital disputes. Secret marriages were forbidden. People were not allowed to marry their cousins, nor anyone related to them by godparentage or through a former marriage. Children conceived within clandestine or forbidden marriages were to be considered illegitimate; they could not inherit property from their parents, nor could they become priests.

      • A newly precise definition and term for the nature of the Eucharist was adopted: “transubstantiation” meant that Christ’s body and blood were truly present in the bread and wine on the altar. Accordingly, the role of the priest was strengthened, for only he could celebrate this mystery.

      • The formation of new religious orders was prohibited. Only a very few of the more recent movements were accepted into the church, among them the Dominicans, the Franciscans, and the Beguines.

      • Some canons singled out Jews and heretics for special punitive treatment; others were directed against Byzantines and Muslims.

    • 4. Where, apart from the Holy Land, did thirteenth-century crusades go, and what were their results?
      Reveal Answer

      You should consider:

      • The Albigensian Crusade (1209–1229) was launched by Pope Innocent III against heretics in southern France. Northern French princes invaded Languedoc, fought with and confiscated the land of the “heretical” local princes, and, in 1229, imposed the rule of the French king. The Albigensian Crusade marked the first time the pope offered warriors who were fighting an enemy within Christian Europe all the spiritual and temporal benefits of a crusade to the Holy Land.

      • The Northern Crusades were first preached by Saint Bernard. Their purpose was to conquer the mainly pagan peoples living along the Baltic coast. They continued intermittently until the early fifteenth century. By the end of the thirteenth century, the Teutonic Knights had brought the lands from Prussia to Estonia under their sway. (See Map 6.8.) The Northern Crusades settled the Baltic region with a German-speaking population. They brought with them characteristic western institutions—cities, laws, guilds, universities, castles, manors, vassalage.

      • The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was originally called by Innocent III to re-establish the Christian presence in the Holy Land. It was diverted by the Venetians to attack Zara (today Zadar), one of the coastal cities that Venice disputed with Hungary. Then, taking up the cause of one claimant to the Byzantine throne, the crusaders turned their sights on Constantinople. After taking and plundering it, the crusaders created a number of Latin states in formerly Byzantine territory. Baldwin I of Flanders became emperor and established himself at Constantinople. The real winner was Venice; it won part of Constantinople, crucial territories along the east coast of the Adriatic Sea, Negroponte, and various islands in the Aegean Sea. With its purchase and conquest of Crete, Venice aimed to dominate the region’s trade. (See Map. 6.3.)

    • 5. Three battles are listed among the Essential Dates on p. 248: the battles of Hattin, Las Navas de Tolosa, and Bouvines. What made them important? What were their causes and consequences?
      Reveal Answer


      • Fought in 1187, the Battle of Hattin pitted the crusaders against Saladin. The Christian army was badly defeated, lost the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and saw the Crusader States reduced to a few port cities.

      • Fought in 1212, the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa pitted the Almohads and other Andalusian Muslim rulers against the Christian Spanish kings, leaders of the reconquista. It was the beginning of the end of al-Andalus.

      • Fought in 1214, the Battle of Bouvines pitted the French king Philip II against the allies of the English king John, a broad coalition of German and Flemish armies led by Emperor Otto IV of Brunswick. The allies of King John were soundly defeated, and although the English king was not at the battle (but was the mastermind behind it), the defeat was a defining moment for him: he lost most of his lands on the Continent, and back in England he had to confront the barons—supported by many members of the gentry and the towns—who organized, rebelled, and called the king to account. At Runnymede, just south of London, in June 1215, John was forced to agree to the charter of baronial liberties called Magna Carta.

  • Chapter 7
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. How did the Mongols help Europeans and Muslims extend their “global vision” (p. 254)?
      Reveal Answer

      Not only did the Mongols assimilate with the older civilizations of the regions that they conquered, but they also opened up routes to China. Muslim, Jewish, and European craftsmen, merchants and (in the case of Europeans) missionaries traveled to China and also settled there. The most famous of these travelers was Marco Polo (1254–1324), whose descriptions of the fabulous wealth of the orient fired up still other adventurers. In a sense, the Mongols initiated the search for exotic goods and religious opportunities that culminated in the European “discovery” of a new world, the Americas.
    • 2. What was the Ilkhan Empire?
      Reveal Answer

      Founded by a successor to Mongol leader Chinghis Khan, the Ilkhan Empire centered in Iran. Once the new rulers established themselves, they created a flourishing state in which Mongol shamanism coexisted in peace with various forms of Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. After flirting for a time with Christianity, the Ilkhanids under Ghazan Khan (r.1295–1304) broke with the Mongols of China and converted to Islam (1295).
    • 3. Who were the Mamluks and what role did they have in the transformation of the thirteenth-century Islamic world?
      Reveal Answer

      Mamluks were former slaves (mainly Turks) converted to Sunni Islam, trained as warriors, and then freed. In Egypt, they served Ayyubid caliph al-Saleh Ayyub until, in 1250, after his death, they took over Egypt for themselves. When the Mongols ousted the Ayyubids in Syria, the Mamluks defeated them and extended their rule over Syria as well, creating an empire that lasted until 1517 (see Map 7.2).
    • 4. Jews and heretics had been persecuted before c.1250–c.1350. What was new about the persecutions of this period?
      Reveal Answer

      The persecutions were more intense and affected more people, especially Jews, than they had in previous centuries. In England, they ended in the expulsion of all Jews in 1290. In France, the Jews were expelled in 1306. The few who were later allowed to return to France were wiped out in popular uprisings in the early 1320s. There was new revulsion against lepers and beggars. Inquisitors continued to pursue heretics in southern France, the Rhineland, and Italy.
    • 5. In what ways did East Central European states start to resemble Western European realms by c.1300?
      Reveal Answer

      Despite their differences, by c.1300 East Central European states had begun, like those of Western Europe, to rely on written laws and administrative documents; their nobles were becoming landlords and castellans; their economies were increasingly urban and market-oriented; their constitutions were defined by charters reminiscent of Magna Carta; and their rulers generally functioned with the help of representative institutions of one sort or another. All—except for Lithuania until Gediminas’s death (in 1341)—were officially Christian, and even Lithuania under Gediminas supported Christian institutions like monasteries, churches, and friaries. Universities, the symbolic centers of Western
    • 6. When and why did the papacy move to Avignon? What was its power base? What were its achievements?
      Reveal Answer

      In 1309, forced from Rome by civil strife, the popes settled at Avignon, a Provençal city administered by the Angevins of Naples but very much under the influence of the French crown. They remained there until 1377. The Avignon Papacy’s power base included the French monarchy and the Dominicans and Franciscans. It established an efficient organization that took in regular revenues and gave the papacy more say than ever before in the appointment of churchmen and the distribution of church benefices and revenues. It concerned itself with the evangelization of the world and the purification of Christendom.
    • 7. How did the doctrine of Purgatory help Christians rethink the afterlife while here on earth?
      Reveal Answer

      The doctrine of Purgatory, informally believed long before it was declared dogma in 1274, held that Masses and prayers said by the living could shorten the purgative torments that had to be suffered to expiate the sins of the dead. Soon families were endowing special chapels for themselves, special spaces where private Masses were offered on behalf of their own members. High churchmen and wealthy laymen and -women insisted that they and members of their family be buried within the walls of a church rather than outside in the burial ground so that their tombs (often embellished with their effigies) would remind the living to pray for them.
    • 8. What part did Thomas Aquinas have in the “scholastic synthesis” (p. 277)?
      Reveal Answer

      The scholastics, that is, the university scholars of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, wanted to synthesize logic with theology, moral questions, and social issues. This knowledge was brought together in summae. The Dominican Thomas Aquinas was an unusually prolific scholastic. In his summae, Thomas attempted to harmonize matters both human and divine, to reconcile faith with reason, and to demonstrate the harmony of belief and understanding (even though, in his view, faith ultimately surpassed reason in knowing higher truths). Thirteenth-century scholastics united or “synthesized” the secular realm with the sacred in apparent harmony.
    • 9. How did writers, musicians, and artists resemble the scholastics in emphasizing harmony in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries? What did they harmonize?
      Reveal Answer

      Writers, like scholastics, found harmonies between this world and the next: Dante’s Divine Comedy, for example, described the harmony between heaven and earth by telling of his own personal journey through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise. Musicians found ways to bridge sacred and secular genres of music: the “motet”—a form of polyphony—harmonized the sacred with worldly concerns and the Latin language with the vernacular. Artists used fleshy, natural forms to evoke the divine.
      Regarding Maps
    • 1. Consider Map 7.1 and 7.3b. In what sense should the Mongol Empire be considered a united and integrated entity?
      Reveal Answer

      By the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongol Empire had taken on the contours of a settled state. Though divided politically into four regions, each under the rule of different khans, the empire was integrated economically. Merchants, traders, and missionaries were welcome to travel across the whole expanse, from Mecca to China.
    • 2. What does Map 7.3a suggest about the commercial activities of Europe c.1300?
      Reveal Answer

      Cities were the hubs of trade networks, which were particularly dense along the coasts of the Baltic and Mediterranean Seas. Eventually, as sailing ships—far more efficient than any sort of galley—were developed by the Genoese and others, the Atlantic passage replaced older overland and river routes between the Mediterranean and Europe’s north. The opening of the Atlantic and the commercial uniting of the Baltic were dramatic developments. Three centers dominated trade: Genoa, Venice, and the cities of the Hanseatic League.
    • 3. Compare Map 7.4 with Map 7.7. How can you infer the population growth by looking at these plans?
      Reveal Answer

      Map 7.4 shows how the city of Piacenza’s walls were rebuilt over time in ever-larger expanses in order to embrace the growing population of the city. Map 7.7 shows how the village of Toury grew rapidly from a few peasant habitations to further settlements toward the east, then the west, and finally (by the fourteenth century) to the north.
    • 4. Consider Map 7.6. What were the new formations in East Central Europe c.1350?
      Reveal Answer

      East Central Europe was shaken by the Mongol invasions and then stabilized in a new pattern. In Hungary, the nobles eventually elected an Angevin—Charles Robert, better known as Carobert (r.1308–1342)—to be their king. Under Carobert, Hungary was very large, even though most of its territory was ruled by the nobles. As for the Bulgarian Empire, by the early fourteenth century agreements with the Byzantines and Mongols brought territories both north and south—formerly lost—back under control. A centralized Poland was gradually reconstructed, not least by Casimir III the Great (r.1333–1370), but this time it looked eastward to Rus’ and Lithuania rather than westward to Silesia and Bohemia. Teutonic Knights continued to expand in the regions along the Baltic Sea. Lithuania’s Duke Gediminas (r.c.1315/1316–1341) fought the Teutonic Knights and took Riga, pressing yet further east- and southward. By the time of his death, Lithuania was the major player in Eastern Europe.
      Regarding Plates
    • 1. How is the illustration in Plate 7.1 evidence of the Mongol artistic eclecticism?
      Reveal Answer

      Plate 7.1 depicts the Mongol version of a Persian classic, the Shahnama (Book of Kings). Its artists drew not only on Persian and Mongol artistic traditions but also—in depicting the emotional gestures of the figures—on Byzantine styles.
    • 2. What does the funerary complex in Plate 7.2 reveal about the Mamluks?
      Reveal Answer

      The Mamluks were army men, and they brought the military’s emphasis on rank and status even to their architecture. At Cairo, the stately edifice illustrated in Plate 7.2 had several mausoleums, a three-story minaret, and numerous rooms and corridors. Likely, it also contained a madrasa (i.e., a school) for teaching Islamic law.
    • 3. Who were ridiculed in the doodle in Plate 7.3 and in what ways?
      Reveal Answer

      The doodle was made on an English tax receipt roll of 1233. It shows Jews not only as religiously hateful but ugly as well. The image shows the very exchequer building (where the doodler no doubt worked as a clerk) topped by a three-faced man labeled “Isaac of Norwich.” Beneath Isaac (on your left) is a devil and, still further left, a man labeled Mosse Mokke. Both Isaac and Mosse were well-known Jewish financiers. Showing Isaac as triple-faced gave him the attribute of the Antichrist, while Mosse’s long nose, tweaked by the devil, was coming to be associated with Jewish physiognomy.
    • 4. Consider Plate 7.4. What church doctrine do the decorations of this chalice illustrate?
      Reveal Answer

      The doctrine of transubstantiation is the core message in this chalice. Its decorations, medallions stamped with Christ’s head alternating with rosettes that represent the five wounds of Christ, graphically show the connection between the wine of the Eucharist and the very blood that Christ had shed on the cross.
    • 5. Compare the ways in which the Virgin Mary is depicted in Plates 7.5, 7.6, and 7.12. What aspects of Mary and her life did artists and their patrons emphasize? Why?
      Reveal Answer

      In the thirteenth century, there was a newly intense devotion to Mary, Christ’s mother (the source of his earthly existence) and interest in her life. Plate 7.6 shows the theme of the Holy Family’s Flight into Egypt, while Giotto’s Lamentation in Plate 7.12 depicts a moving portrait of Mary grieving over Christ’s body. Plate 7.5 shows a Shrine Madonna, used as an aid to private devotion. Closed, it depicts Mary nursing the Christ Child; opened, it reveals a seated God holding a cross (the crucified Christ is lost, as is the dove signifying the Holy Spirit). The statue thus embodies the idea that Mary was not just the mother of Christ but also the bearer of the entire Trinity in her very womb.
    • 6. Comparing Plates 7.2, 7.7 and 7.10, what were the various ways in which people c.1300 memorialized the dead in stone?
      Reveal Answer

      Elites everywhere marked their deaths with impressive monuments. In the Mamluk sultanate, they built huge complexes that included their tombs (as in Plate 7.2); in France and Italy, they decorated tombs with effigies of the deceased (Plates 7.7 and 7.10). Plate 7.10 also memorializes the profession of the deceased with an imaginative sculptural representation of a teacher and his students.
    • 7. What does Plate 7.9 illustrate?
      Reveal Answer

      The page illustrates a delicate issue: consanguinity. The bearded male figure signifies the family forefather. Screening most of his body is the Tree of Consanguinity. The black circle at the center is the Ego, “I.” All the other circles radiate out from it and indicate their relationship to Ego. The church had long banned “incestuous marriages” among members of a kin group, and the Tree of Consanguinity was a convenient way to diagram degrees of separation.
      .
    • 8. What was “lusterware” and what uses did it have? What plate offers an illustration of this technique?
      Reveal Answer

      “Lusterware” was the Islamic world’s answer to fine white China. Using a technique combining tin-oxide and clear lead, Islamic potters produced a fine white opaque glaze to apply to clay. Then, to produce the lustrous finish of lusterware, they decorated the white surface with silver or copper oxides. The result was glowing color. Not only bowls and plates and other tableware was made with this technique but also tiles for use on walls and other surfaces. An example is found in Plate 7.13.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define “khan.”
      Reveal Answer

      The word refers to rulers or leaders. In earlier chapters, we have seen the Bulgar khan Boris. The Mongols formed under the leadership of Chinghis (or Genghis) Khan (c.1162–1227).
    • 2. Who were the “Guelfs” and “Ghibellines.”
      Reveal Answer

      In the thirteenth century, Italian cities were torn into factions that defined themselves not by loyalties to a king or a count (as in Flanders) but rather by adherence to either the pope or the emperor. The Guelfs were the papal supporters, while the Ghibellines were the imperial supporters. However, under these labels, city factions often fought for reasons unrelated to their papal or imperial alliances.
    • 3. Define “popolo.”
      Reveal Answer

      Meaning literally “people,” the popolo was a group from the lower classes, though often joined by members of the elites, that formed in many Italian cities to counter the power of the commune. It demanded a role in city government, and in many cases achieved its goals, at least for a time.
    • 4. Define “Golden Bull.”
      Reveal Answer

      Promulgated in Germany in 1356, the Golden Bull freed imperial rule from the papacy but at the same time made it dependent on the German princes, who henceforth had the role of “electors” of the new emperors.
    • 5. Define “ministerials.”
      Reveal Answer

      Ministerials were a group particularly important in Germany. They were legally serfs who served (mainly local rulers, both lay and ecclesiastical) as tax collectors, judges, administrators, and warriors. These functions were so honorable that the ministerial class gradually rose both in status and wealth. By 1300 they had become “nobles.”
    • 6. Define “parliaments.”
      Reveal Answer

      These began as the king’s “court,” but by the thirteenth century had become formal assemblies. All across Europe, from Spain to Poland, from England to Hungary, rulers summoned parliaments to celebrate their power and to obtain assent to their wishes from the “orders” (or “estates”)—clergy, nobles, and (eventually) commons. Eventually parliaments became organs through which groups not ordinarily at court could voice their interests, complaints, and even opposition.
    • 7. Define “Babylonian Captivity.”
      Reveal Answer

      Francis Petrarch (1304–1374), one of the great Italian literary figures, called the period of the Avignon Papacy (1309–1377) the “Babylonian Captivity,” referring to 2 Kings 25:11, when the ancient Hebrews were exiled and held captive in Babylonia. It was a way for Petrarch to express his disappointment at and resentment for the prolonged absence of the papacy from Rome.
    • 8. Define “scholastics.”
      Reveal Answer

      The men (there were no women scholastics) who produced the philosophical, theological, and scientific texts of the medieval universities. Scholastic texts reached their apogee in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and were generally authored by Dominicans and Franciscans, who dominated the teaching at the most important universities of Europe. Scholasticism refers to the whole complex of scholastics and their texts: one can speak of an Age of Scholasticism.
    • 9. Define “Great Famine.”
      Reveal Answer

      The Great Famine (1315–1317) is what historians call one of many waves of food shortages that shook the medieval world on either side of the year 1300. The chief causes of such scarcity have traditionally been sought in demographics and declining food production. But newer research pins the blame not so much on natural factors as on human action—and inaction.
      Long-Answer Questions
    • 1. Compare the development of representative institutions in Spain, Germany, England, and France.
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include these considerations:

      • In Spain, the cortes of León-Castile were among the earliest representative assemblies. Already in the late twelfth century the cortes, originally a group of nobles that counseled the king, came to include the representatives of townspeople, the “caballeros villanos” (city horsemen). Once convened at court, these wealthy townsmen joined bishops and noblemen in formally counseling the king and assenting to royal decisions.

      • In Germany, after the promulgation of the Golden Bull in 1356, the royal and imperial level of administration was less important than the local. As a result, no national representative institution developed. But in many localities, dukes or princes found themselves negotiating periodically with noble and urban leagues. In Lower Bavaria, for example, the duke was obliged to ask representatives of the nobles, clergy, and townsmen for the taxes that he needed.

      • In England, the consultative role of the barons at court had been formalized by the guarantees of Magna Carta. In the thirteenth century, Parliament became a more truly representative institution under the pressure of baronial opposition to Henry III (r.1216–1272). When Simon de Montfort, who rebelled against Henry and ruled England for two years, needed to rally support in 1264, he called a parliament of barons and knights. When he summoned another parliament in 1265, he added, for the first time ever, representatives of the towns—the “commons.” This precedent was largely followed even after the king regained his throne.

      • In France, “parlement” was not a representative institution; it was a court of law. A representative assembly of the French estates (or “orders:” clergy, nobles, and townspeople), ancestors of the French Estates General, was called for the first time in 1302 by King Philip IV the Fair (r.1285–1314) to explain his side in his conflict with Pope Boniface VIII. The Estates met again in 1308 to hear the king’s side in his proceedings against the Templars. Called together sporadically in later centuries, the Estates never achieved the sort of institutional permanence that the English Parliament had.

    • 2. Discuss the main features of the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century “global economy.”
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer should include these considerations:

      • The Mongol conquests, stretching from China into Europe and the Middle East, brought new economic and (for churchmen) missionary opportunities.

      • Atlantic Ocean travel became possible with crucial developments in naval technology. The opening of the Atlantic and the commercial unification of the Baltic (the Hanseatic League) marked dramatically new economic opportunities.

      • Within Europe, new roads and bridges made land trade faster and more profitable.

      • Burgeoning trade called for large-scale payments, necessitating the introduction of gold coinage. In 1252 Genoa and Florence struck gold coins for the first time (the gold came from the upper Niger River). The practice spread, profiting above all Italy and East Central Europe. In fact, the kings of Hungary and Bohemia formed an alliance to control the flow of gold, enhance their purchasing power, and increase trade.

      • Europeans now had access to material goods of every sort, but wealth also heightened social tensions, especially in the cities of Flanders and northern Italy.

    • 3. Historians call the Great Famine (1315-1317) one of many waves of food shortages that shook the medieval world on either side of the year 1300. What was the traditional historical explanation for this famine? How has newer research modified this view?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer should include these considerations:

      The traditional view:

      • While around the year 1300 farms were producing more food than ever before, population growth meant that families had more hungry mouths to feed. The village of Toury (near Paris) is a good example of this growth: in the course of the thirteenth century, encouraged both by Saint-Denis’s policy of giving out lots in return for rents and by a market granted by the king, the village grew rapidly. Meanwhile, the lands cultivated by the villagers had to support many more people than previously.

      • Climatic changes worked havoc. A mini ice age took hold in the north of Europe (though not in the south), leading to wheat shortages. In 1309 the cold weather was joined by an extremely wet growing season that ruined the harvest in southern and western Germany. The towns, where food had to be imported, were hit especially hard.


       

      The newer view:

      • Scarcity and famine were hardly inevitable, and in some places they were not evident at all.

      • Humans themselves were responsible for aggravating food shortages across Europe. Indirectly, warfare took a major toll on economic life. As states grew in power, rulers hired soldiers—mercenaries—and depended less on knights. But these troops were paid such poor wages that they plundered the countryside even when they were not fighting.

      • War debts were responsible for new sorts of taxes. In 1315 the king of France offered liberty to all his serfs, mainly to assess a new war tax on all free men. New taxes meant that many peasants had to go into debt to pay them. Some lost their land entirely.

      • Great lords, rulers, and merchants manipulated the markets to their own profit.

      • At the same time, the countryside had its own sort of commerce, petty but active. Enterprising villagers sold meat and extended credit on the side to their neighbors.

      • People in the Mediterranean region—Italy, Spain, southern France, and Provence—found new ways to face shortages. In part this was due to the fact that the area boasted more diversified crops than the north, so that, when wheat harvests were poor, peasants could survive on chestnuts and millet, or they could relocate to regions better suited to their needs.

      • In conclusion: all was not bleak in the age of the Great Famine. Much depended on who and where you were—and whether the local markets were fair or manipulated by profiteers.

  • Chapter 8
    Reveal Answer

      Short-Answer Questions
    • 1. In what ways did the Ottomans act as successors to the Byzantines?
      Reveal Answer

      The Ottoman state first formed in Anatolia, Byzantium’s backyard. Rather than unite in the face of this new power, rival factions within Byzantium tried to make use of the Ottomans, but this just enhanced Ottoman power. Once the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, the sultan recognized the need for a Christian religious leader there, and he re-established the patriarch, who still had a church organization to run and a flock of Orthodox believers to serve. Byzantium lived on politically within the new Ottoman regime as well. Although in popular speech Constantinople became Istanbul (meaning “the city”), its official name remained “Qustantiniyya”—the City of Constantine. The Ottoman sultans saw themselves as the successors of the Roman emperors—but better, true-believing successors. Mehmed commissioned an edition of Homer’s Iliad, negotiated with Genoese and Venetian traders, and “borrowed” Gentile Bellini from Venice to be his court artist.
    • 2. What accounts for the longevity of the Ottoman state?
      Reveal Answer

      Building on a theory of absolutism that echoed similar ideas beginning to take shape in the Christian West, the Ottoman rulers acted as the sole guarantors of law and order. Taking the title of caliphs, the Ottoman rulers dominated everything, from religion to architecture. Their empire prospered from taxes pouring in from its conquered lands and its relatively well-to-do peasantry. The Ottomans built new roads for military purposes and supported a powerful navy. All signs of rebellion were suppressed.
    • 3. What were the social and economic effects of the Black Death?
      Reveal Answer

      The Black Death (1346-1353) killed between one-fifth and one-half of the European population. This led to acute labor shortages in both town and country. Survivors of the plague took advantage of the situation, throwing off old servile obligations and striking favorable bargains with landlords, or joining guilds newly in need of workers. With their newfound wealth, men and women married at an earlier age than before, and, because of their sense of no tomorrow, they spent what they could on luxuries. In Italy, cities like Florence, worried about losing their old frugal values, passed newly toughened laws to restrict finery.
    • 4. Consider Genealogy 8.1. What does it tell us about the origins of the Hundred Years’ War?
      Reveal Answer

      Isabella, the daughter of the French king Philip IV, married the king of England, Edward II (1307-1327). Their son, Edward III, was in line for the French throne when Isabella’s brother Charles IV died in 1328. The French nobles awarded it instead to Philip VI, nephew of Philip IV the Fair, who became the first Valois king of France. Edward’s claims to the French throne were in large measure responsible for the outbreak of the Hundred Years’ War.
    • 5. Why did the dukes of Burgundy, who were related to the French kings, support the English?
      Reveal Answer

      It is true that Philip the Bold, the first duke of Burgundy, was the brother of the Valois king Charles V. But his grandson, Philip the Good (r.1419-1467), decided to link his destiny with England for good economic reasons: Flanders, which made up half of the Burgundian duchy, was dependent on England for the wool that it turned into cloth. After 1435, cannily predicting the French triumph in the Hundred Years’ War, the duke of Burgundy abandoned the English and supported the French, at least in lukewarm fashion.
    • 6. How did the Great Schism (1378-1417) come about, and how was it resolved?
      Reveal Answer

      The Great Schism came about, ironically, after the Avignon pope Gregory XI returned to Rome in 1377. A new scandal arose immediately upon Gregory’s death in 1378, when two popes claimed power, one of whom remained in Rome, the other of whom went back to Avignon. This situation lasted until 1409, when the two popes refused to resign after the Council of Pisa named what it hoped would be the replacement for both. Instead, there were now three popes, the third one located in Bologna. The crisis was resolved by the Council of Constance (1414-1418), which in 1417 deposed all three popes and elected a new one, Martin V, who established himself in Rome.
    • 7. Why did the monarchs of France and Spain take greater control over the Catholic church in their realms?
      Reveal Answer

      The main reason was the growth of royal power and its ability to take greater control over many areas of life, including religion. In France, with the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), Charles VII declared himself the guarantor of French Church reform: popes were no longer to appoint French prelates nor grant benefices to churchmen; these matters now came under the jurisdiction of the king. In Spain, the crown claimed similar rights about a half century later, when the marriage of Ferdinand (r.1479-1516) and Isabella (r.1474-1504) united Aragon and Castile.
    • 8. What was the situation of the Jews in late-medieval Spain?
      Reveal Answer

      Virulent anti-Jewish pogroms in 1391 led many Jews to convert to Christianity (gaining the name conversos). But the subsequent successes of the conversos stirred resentment among the "Old Christians." Harnessing popular hostility, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella received a papal privilege to set up their own version of the Inquisition in 1478. Under the friar-inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada (1420-1498), wholesale torture and public executions became the norm for disposing of "crypto-Jews." After they conquered Granada, in 1492, the monarchs demanded that all remaining Jews convert or leave the country. Many chose exile over conversos status.
    • 9. Was Italy the only country where there was a Renaissance in the period 1350 to 1500?
      Reveal Answer

      The short answer is no. But it is certainly true that in Italy many city elites strained to pattern themselves on ancient artistic, literary, and political models and traditions. However, in Northern Europe as well, ancient themes appealed to newly powerful rulers. Deeds of heroes were depicted on tapestries that provided lustrous backdrops for rulers of every stripe. Dukes and other northern European patrons favored a new style of art that emphasized devotion, sentiment, and immediacy. Both the Italian and Northern Renaissances cultivated music and musicians, above all for the aura that they gave rulers, princes, and great churchmen.
    • 10. What made it possible for Europeans to invent the printing press?
      Reveal Answer

      The printing press depended first on a new technique to mold metal type. The second step was getting the raw materials that were needed to ensure ongoing production. Paper required water mills and a steady supply of rag (pulp made of cloth). Third, ink had to be found that would adhere to metal letters as well as spread evenly on paper.
      Terms of History
    • 1. Define “Black Death.”
      Reveal Answer

      Historians call the pandemic that struck Europe between 1348 and 1353 the Black Death. It was caused by Yersinia pestis, the bacterium of the plague. The disease began on the Tibetan-Quinghat Plateau, arriving in the West along well-worn routes of trade with the Mongols. Caffa, the Genoese trading post on the northern shore of the Black Sea, was hit in 1347. From there the plague traveled to Europe and the Middle East.
    • 2. Define “Free Companies.”
      Reveal Answer

      These were bands of mercenaries that hired themselves out to the highest bidder. When unemployed, they roved the countryside, living off the gains of pillage. They were especially prevalent during the Hundred Years' War, which went on intermittently for over one hundred years.
    • 3. Define “Wars of the Roses.”
      Reveal Answer

      The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic wars fought from 1455-1487 between the houses of York and Lancaster. They were later dubbed the "Wars of the Roses" after the white rose badge of the Yorkists and the red of the Lancastrians.
    • 4. Define “indulgences.”
      Reveal Answer

      Indulgences promised people release from Purgatory for a specific number of days for acts of piety, such as viewing a relic or attending a special church feast. Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404) commercialized indulgences: money payments were declared equivalent to performing the acts themselves.
    • 5. Define “conciliarists.”
      Reveal Answer

      The word refers to those who, during the Great Schism of the church, advocated the convening of a council that would have authority over even the pope. Conciliarists included both university men and princes anxious to flex their muscles over the church.
    • 6. Define “moriscos.”
      Reveal Answer

      In 1502 the remaining Muslims in Spain were required to convert to Christianity or leave. Many chose to convert, coming to be known as moriscos. They were never integrated into the mainstream and were expelled from the kingdom in the early seventeenth century.
    • 7. Define “conversos.”
      Reveal Answer

      Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity in the wake of the virulent pogroms of 1391 were known as conversos. Their worldly success and assimilation led to hostility from the "Old Christians," and the Inquisition, set up in 1478, tortured and killed many.
    • 8. Define “Renaissance.”
      Reveal Answer

      Historians have come to give the name Renaissance to an era of artists and humanists. But the Renaissance was less a period than a program that made the language and art of the ancient past the model for the present. It privileged classical books as "must" reading for an eager and literate elite, and promoted old classical art, sculpture, and architecture as models for artists and builders. The Renaissance gave city communes and wealthy princes alike a new repertory of vocabulary, symbols, and styles, drawn from a resonant and heroic past, with which to associate their present power.
    • 9. Define “devotio moderna.”
      Reveal Answer

      Literally "new devotion," this religious movement developed in the Low Countries, the Rhineland, and northern Germany. Attracting both men and women, who lived in separate houses, it emphasized private reading and contemplation rather than public or communal religious devotion. The devotional style of this movement was in many ways a precursor to some later Protestant groups.
      Long-Answer Questions
    • 1. Why did France win the Hundred Years’ War?
      Reveal Answer

      Your answer might include the following:

      • As Map 8.3 shows, England in 1430 looked poised to win the war. But Henry V died in 1422 leaving behind only a regent to rule England's conquests in France.

      • Charles VII, the French dauphin, was inspired–as was his army–by Jeanne d'Arc.

      • The French made good use of gunpowder-fired artillery.

      • After 1435, the Duke of Burgundy abandoned the English and supported the French.

    • 2. Between 1350 and 1500, Europe was struck and bloodied by several disasters (wars, disease, famine). Yet your textbook states, “By 1500, Europe was poised to conquer the Americas” (p. 301). What factors made this possible?
      Reveal Answer

      Some factors include:

      • The economic upheaval that took place after the Black Death, while decimating the European population, allowed those who survived to amass new wealth. With it they sponsored major undertakings, such as sea and land explorations.

      • In the aftermath of the wars, super-princes came to the fore, ready to engage in high-stakes competitions. Thus, Portugal's success in navigation inspired Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to find a rival seaman: Christopher Columbus.

      • Technological advances (for example, the heavy galleon), the promise of great profits, and the hope of gaining glory and honor inspired rulers and adventurers to explore new horizons.

      • The revival of interest in the classical period encouraged people to explore new possibilities in their own world.

    • 3. What happened to turn Europeans’ passion for new goods and missionary opportunities away from the eastern trade routes fostered by the Mongols and toward the Atlantic?
      Reveal Answer

      Some points to consider:

      • As the Mongol Empire disintegrated and the Ottomans took over the East, Europeans began to turn away from the trade routes fostered by the Mongols toward newly discovered avenues.

      • Even though Europeans traded with the Ottoman Empire, they saw it as an obstacle blocking the old passages to the East. Because they could do so, they changed their orientation to the West.

      • New inventions in navigation and shipbuilding made it possible to travel faster and farther, more accurately and safely.

      • The profits from cane sugar and the use of African slave labor changed the goods for which Europeans were passionate.

    • 4. Compare the causes and results of the various revolts in late medieval Flanders, France, England, and Italy.
      Reveal Answer

      Responses might include these points:

      • In Flanders, the peasants were accustomed to a measure of self-government and refused to pay new taxes when they were imposed in the first quarter of the fourteenth century. They managed to remain independent of outside authority for a few years. But in 1328, they were defeated by a coalition of royal and papal forces. A few years later the weavers of Ghent revolted against their French-leaning overlords and took up the English cause. Tensions continued until Philip the Good (1419-1467), the duke of Burgundy, allied himself with the English.

      • In France, the peasant movement of 1358 resisted the Free Companies that wreaked havoc on the countryside and revolted against the nobility because they couldn-™t properly secure the peace. The movement, called the Jacquerie by dismissive chroniclers, was brutally and quickly silenced.

      • In England, the Peasants-™ Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler, began as a rebellion against a new poll tax and ended by demanding an end to serfdom. Although the revolt was quickly put down, the peasants gained their point, and serfdom gradually disappeared in England.

      • In Italy, cloth workers chafed under regimes that gave them no say in government. At Siena in 1371, a coalition of woolworkers (the ciompi) and the popolo minuto clashed with the elites and set up a short-lived government. Similar events took place elsewhere. But soon the old elites came back into power.

    • 5. Compare the causes and effects of popular religious movements in England and Bohemia.
      Reveal Answer

      Some considerations include:

      • In England, theologian John Wyclif (c.1330-1384) argued that churchmen should have limited importance and that the laity should have more say in spiritual matters. For example, he wanted laypeople to have the right to read and interpret the Bible. At first Wyclif and his followers, later called lollards, were embraced by the king, but soon the lollards were declared heretics and largely suppressed during the fifteenth century.

      • In Bohemia, Wyclif's writings found an adherent in Jan Hus, who shaped Wyclif's arguments to local needs. Arguing against the power of churchmen in Bohemia, Hus called for a reformed church based on the community of believers rather than the church hierarchy. Hus was burned as a heretic, and the Hussites were persecuted. Nevertheless, many were protected by the Bohemian nobility. The movement ended with the creation of a Bohemian church, with its own special liturgy for the Mass.

      • Thus, in both places, initial support from powerful elites helped give both lollards and Hussites considerable importance.

Maps

Emperors and Popes

Click below to download the lists of emperors and popes from A Short History of the Middle Ages, Fifth Edition.

Late Roman Emperors
Byzantine Emperors
Popes and Antipopes to 1500
Caliphs
Ottoman Emirs and Sultans